Acronyms and Symbols

List of InSAR Acronyms and Symbols

List of Acronyms

ALDAzimuth Look Direction
ALOSAdvanced Land Observing Satellite
AMIActive Microwave Instrument
ASIAgenzia Spaziale Italiana (Italian Space Agency)
AVHRRAdvanced Very High Resolution Radiometer
BTTBBlock-Toeplitz Toeplitz-Block
CFEComisión Federal de Electricidad, Mexico
CLARA’96Clouds and Radiation experiment 1996
CMOD4C-band Model 4 (empirically derived model function to relate normalized radar cross-section with wind speed and direction)
CNESCentre National D’Etudes Spatiales
CPGFCerro Prieto Geothermal Field
CSACanadian Space Agency
CTRSConventional Terrestrial Reference System
DEMDigital Elevation Model
DEOSDelft Institute for Earth-Oriented Space Research
DFDDeutsches Fernerkundungsdatenzentrum
(German Remote Sensing Data Center)
DIALDifferential Absorption Lidar
DLRDeutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.
(German Aerospace Center)
DPWVDifferential Precipitable Water Vapor
DUTDelft University of Technology
ERSEuropean Remote Sensing Satellite
ESAEuropean Space Agency
fBmFractional Brownian Motion
FFAFar Field Approximation
FFTFast Fourier Transform
FMFrequency Modulated
GISAREGroningen Interferometric SAR Experiment
GNSSGlobal Navigation Satellite Systems
GPSGlobal Positioning System
IEEEInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
IERSInternational Earth Rotation Service
IGSInternational GPS Service for Geodynamics
InSARInterferometric SAR / SAR interferometry
IPWIntegrated Precipitable Water
I/QIn-Phase (real), Quadrature (imaginary)
IRMInterferometric Radar Meteorology
ITRFIERS Terrestrial Reference Frame
JERSJapanese Earth-Resources Satellite
JPLJet Propulsion Laboratory
LOSLine of Sight
LTLocal Time
MCFMinimal Cost Flow
MITMassachusetts Institute of Technology
MSCMesoscale Shallow Convection
NAMNederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij B.V.
NAPNormaal Amsterdams Peil (Dutch vertical reference datum)
NASANational Aeronautics and Space Administration
NASDANational Aeronautics and Space Development Agency (Japan)
NDVINormalized Differential Vegetation Index
NOAANational Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
PAFProcessing and Archiving Center
PDFProbability Density function
PLWPrecipitable Liquid Water
PRAREPrecise Range and Rate Equipment
PRFPulse Repetition Frequency
PWVPrecipitable Water Vapor
radarRadio detection and ranging
RARReal Aperture Radar
RCSRadar Cross Section
RHRelative Humidity
RMSRoot Mean Square
RRFRange Reference Function
SARSynthetic Aperture Radar
SIRShuttle Imaging Radar, Spaceborne Imaging Radar
SLARSide Looking Airborne Radar
SLCSingle-Look Complex
SLRSatellite Laser Ranging / (Side Looking Radar)
SNRSignal-to-Noise Ratio
SPOTSystem Probatoire d’Observation de la Terre
SRTMShuttle Radar Topography Mission
SWSTSampling Window Start Time
TECTotal Electron Content
TECUTotal Electron Content Unit
TIDTraveling Ionospheric Disturbance
UTCUniversal Coordinated Time
VLBIVery Long Baseline Interferometry
VTECVertical Total Electron Content
WGS84World Geodetic Survey 1984
WVWater Vapor
X-SARX-band Synthetic Aperture Radar

List of Symbols

Initialization value, usually determined for reference surface
ADesign matrix
Part of the design matrix corresponding to observation κ
B∥Parallel baseline
B⊥Perpendicular baseline
B°⊥Perpendicular baseline for range to resolution cell on the reference surface
B⊥critCritical (perpendicular) baseline
BℎHorizontal baseline
BᵛVertical baseline
BAzimuth time bandwidth
Bᴿ Range bandwidth
BᴰᵒᵖDoppler bandwidth
ᶜ Speed of light = 299792458 m/s
CStructure function coefficient
CVariance-covariance matrix of the estimated parameters
Variance-covariance matrix
CsVariance-covariance matrix of atmospheric delay
DᵃAntenna width (m)
D{.}Dispersion operator, second moment, or variance-covariance matrix
DᵢFractal dimension for a signal
DSlant deformation for observation ᵏ
Structure function of parameter χ
E{.} Expectation operator, ensemble average, first moment, or mean
Partial pressure of water vapor (hPa)
f oCarrier (center) frequency
fDoppler frequency
fᴰ cDoppler centroid frequency
fᵖPulse repetition frequency (PRF) (cycles/m)
fFringe frequency
ℎᵖAltitude of point ᵖ
ℎꜱᵖ Height of the sub-ionospheric point (m)
ℎ ²πHeight ambiguity (m)
HAltitude; Haussdorff measure
H κTopographic height for observation κ
IIntegrated Precipitable Water
LEffective number of looks
Antenna length (m)
L1,L2GPS carrier phase frequencies (Ll=l.57542 GHz, L2=l.22760 GHz)
L3GPS ionospheric-free linear combination
mNumber of observations
nNumber of parameters (unknowns)
nElectron content (m-3)
n∥ Parallel error baseline
n⊥Perpendicular error baseline
NRefractivity, Geoid height
pdfProbability density function
PTotal atmospheric pressure (hPa)
PPower spectrum of parameter ᵡ
Real positive-semidefinite cofactor matrix
R(Slant) range (m)
R1Slant range between reference (master) satellite and resolution cell (m)
R2Slant range between secundary (slave) satellite and resolution cell (m)
ScChirp rate or Frequency slope ( S-2)
STiKSlant atmospheric delay for pixel at (m)
tTime (s)
TTemperature (K)
υVelocity (m/s)
υHermitian product γ1γ2*
υ s/cVelocity of spacecraft (m/s)
ᵚᵏInteger ambiguity number
w Liquid water content (g m-3)
w{.}Wrapping operator
wRadar footprint width in azimuth (3dB)
xVector of parameters
Best linear unbiased estimator of the unknown parameters x
s/cState vector of spacecraft
ỿComplex observation (phasor) ᵢ
Z(υ,v)Amplitude spectrum of interferogram υ and v are wavenumbers)
Z(υ,v)Amplitude spectrum of filtered interferogram
αBaseline orientation angle; Spectral exponent
βError baseline orientation angle; Spectral index
βAngular beamwidth in range direction (rad)
βαAngular beamwidth in azimuth direction (rad)
γCoherence (complex)
γgeomCoherence reduction due to geometric (baseline) decorrelation
γdcCoherence reduction due to Doppler centroid decorrelation
γtemporalCoherence reduction due to temporal decorrelation
γvolCoherence reduction due to volume decorrelation
γprocessingCoherence reduction due to processing induced decorrelation
γthermalCoherence reduction due to thermal noise
ℾᵪSemi-variogram of parameter ᵪ
∂∅Change in look angle
ΔαFocused azimuth resolution
ΔSlant range resolution
ΔRSlant range difference
ΔRdefo,pSlant range difference due to deformation
Vector of observation errors
ζLocal terrain slope w.r.t. reference surface (positive towards the radar) ζ =inc-loc
Look angle
incIncidence angle, defined with respect to the global vertical at the scene
locLocal incidence angle, defined with respect to the local vertical at the inc=loc-ζ
Reference phase (rad)
Radar wavelength
ɅGeographic longitude in WGS84
pLocal earth radius (m); Horizontal distance between two resolution cells.
Autocorrelation function of parameter χ
σ2a priori variance factor
σ0“Sigma nought” or Radar Cross Section (RCS). Average power reflectivity or scattering coefficient per unit surface area
τPulse length
τcEffective pulse length
Absolute interferometric phase, including reference phase
wWrapped interferometric phase, including reference phase
Geographic latitude in WGS84
rOff-center beam angle in range direction (rad)
aOff-center beam angle in azimuth direction (rad)
sSquint angle (rad)
NPhase noise (rad)
φAbsolute interferometric phase, reference phase subtracted
φwWrapped interferometric phase, reference phase subtracted
φkStochastic phase observation
φReal stochastic vector of observations
ψPhase (rad)
ψscatScattering contribution to the phase value (rad)
ΩkRatio between of B⊥ deformation pair and of B⊥ topographic pair
Set of natural numbers
Set of real numbers
Set of integer numbers
Set of complex numbers
ℱ Fourier transform

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